The development of papermaking


Cai Lun He used bark, hemp and crepe, fish net and othe […]

Cai Lun

He used bark, hemp and crepe, fish net and other raw materials, and the paper made by frustration, smashing, copying, baking and other processes is the origin of modern paper. This kind of paper, the raw materials are easy to find, they are very cheap, the quality is also improved, and they are gradually used. To commemorate Cai Lun’s achievements, later generations called this paper “Cai Hou Paper”.

Paper is the crystallization of the accumulation of long-term experience and wisdom of the Chinese working people. Paper is a sheet-like fiber product used for writing, printing, painting or packaging. Generally, the aqueous suspension of the pulpy treated plant fibers is interlaced on the net, initially dehydrated, and then compressed and dried. China is the first country in the world to invent paper. According to archaeological findings, China has had hemp fiber paper in the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC to 8 BC). The texture is rough, the quantity is small, the cost is high, and it is not popular.Paper making fabric

Since ancient times, Chinese working people have already learned to raise silkworms and silkworms. In the Qin and Han dynasties, the handicraft industry with silkworms was very popular. This method of treating secondary defects is called a floatation method, and the basic points of operation include repeated beatings to smash the silkworm coat. This technology later developed into beating in papermaking. In addition, lime water or grass gray water is commonly used in ancient China for the degumming of silk and linen. This technology also enlightens the degumming of plant fibers in papermaking. Paper is developed with these technologies.

Historically, there is very little literature on the papermaking technology of the Han Dynasty, so it is difficult to understand its complete and detailed process. Although future generations have speculation, they can only be used as a reference. In general, there are many papermaking technology links, so there must be a process of development and evolution, which is by no means a one-person merit. It is the crystallization of the accumulation of long-term experience and wisdom of the Chinese working people.

In the early days of papermaking, papermaking materials were mainly bark and rags. The rags at that time were mainly hemp fibers, and the varieties were mainly castor and marijuana. It is said that China's cotton was introduced to India at the same time as Buddhism in the early Eastern Han Dynasty and later used for textiles. The bark used at that time was mainly sandalwood and skin (ie suede). At the latest in the early Western Han Dynasty in the second century BC, paper was published in China. The original paper was made of hemp fiber or hemp fabric. Because the papermaking process is still in the early stage, the process is simple, the paper produced is rough, and there are more unbroken fiber bundles, and the surface is not smooth. Not suitable for writing, generally only for packaging.

Until the Eastern Han Dynasty and Emperor period, after the improvement of Cai Lun, a set of relatively stereotyped papermaking process was formed, and the process can be roughly summarized into four steps:

The first is the separation of the raw materials, that is, the raw materials are degummed in the alkali solution by immersion or cooking, and dispersed into a fibrous form;

The second is beating, which is to cut the fiber by cutting and twisting, and to make the fiber deuterated to become pulp;

The third is the papermaking, that is, the pulp is oozing into a slurry, and then the pulp is used by a paper scraper (the banquet) to make the pulp woven into a sheet of wet paper on the paper hopper;

The fourth is drying, that is, drying the wet paper or drying it, and peeling it off becomes paper.